Type 1 diabetes (insulin dependent)
Filed in: Diseases.
Diabetes is an endocrine disorder characterized by metabolic abnormalities, especially the metabolism of carbohydrates. Diabetes mellitus occurs when the pancreas secretes insufficient amounts of insulin or when the body's insulin use is poor. Insulin is the hormone that provides the cellular energy needs through the use of sugar (glucose) by the cells.
If the insulin secretion is poor or if there is resistance to its action in the target tissues, the level of sugar in the blood (glucose) is too high and the tissues can not use glucose for energy. If the blood glucose increases persistently, complications can occur in the eyes, heart, blood vessels, nerves and kidneys. If your blood sugar level reaches high values, this will produce a serious metabolic imbalance that characterizes diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA).
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Type 1 diabetes occurs due to the autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta cells that secrete insulin. Heredity plays an important role in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes. However, a large number of patients with type 1 diabetes do not have a family history of insulin-dependent diabetes. Therefore, experts believe that an important role in the etiology of diabetes, in addition to genetic predisposition, are certain environmental factors. One of the environmental factors involved in the production of diabetes is usually an infectious agent such as the Coxsackie B virus. The relationship between the onset of diabetes and vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae type b infection has not been demonstrated, although it was formulated this hypothesis.
The symptoms of type 1 diabetes occur quickly, in a few days or weeks and are due to increased blood glucose levels. Early symptoms may be ignored by the patient, especially if the person has recently had the flu.
These first symptoms are:
Frequent urination, especially at night. Some young children who have already learned to use the bathroom begin to have bedwetting (peeing in bed at night); Extreme thirst and dry mouth; Weightloss; Increased appetite;
Sometimes, blood sugar levels can reach very high values without the awareness of the person suffering. Because insulin is non-existent, the body's cells can not use glucose for energy. Due to this absolute deficiency of insulin, the body uses the catabolism of proteins and lipids for energy.
The lipids and proteins that are burned increase considerably, causing an excess of ketones that enter the blood circulation. It produces one of the most serious complications of type 1 diabetes: diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) whose symptoms are:
– Dry, red, hot skin; – Decreased appetite, abdominal pain, vomiting; – Strong smell of breath, characteristic of acetone. – Rapid and deep breathing; – Agitation, drowsiness, confusion, coma; – Young children lose interest in daily activities.
The onset of type 1 diabetes is caused by the autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta cells. The rate of destruction of the insulin secretory cell is variable, since, for children, the disease is suddenly installed because the beta cells are destroyed; While in adults, because the start is slow. Cellular destruction occurs gradually.
Sometimes, the symptoms of diabetes follow a viral infection (influenza).
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Type 1 diabetes (insulin dependent), source of the article: https://www.brighthealing.com/type-1-diabetes-insulin-dependent/
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