Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is one of the oldest spices in the world. The Greeks used it 2500 years ago. In the Middle Ages, only the very rich could have this precious spice. Often, a tribute was paid in black pepper.
Black pepper is a plant native to the areas of the West Indies and Burma. Extremely widespread throughout Southeast Asia, it grows in humid equatorial areas, with little seasonal variation. The similar wild plant with a liana extends through trees up to 10-15 m in height.
The subspecies of black pepper may include:
Longum – India, Hymalaya, Ceylan
Retrofactum – Indonesia, Malaysia
Saigon – Vietnam
Clusii and Guineense – Africa
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This plant is grown for a long time in the form of a vine that is fixed with a few frames. It has oval leaves, flowers, fruits in the form of grain, 4-10 mm in diameter. Fruits go through a range of colors from green to red and then to black.
The green pepper is preserved in a water-based solution. Black pepper is the powder of nuts. White pepper is the result of ripe fruit, but it is treated with water to expose the coating and then dried.
Properties of black pepper:
Its flavor comes from the essential oil of terpenic carbides, which is found in 1 to 3% in the fruit. The burning taste is mainly due to an alkaloid and some amides, which reach up to 10% by weight.
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It is a spice that helps digest fats and sugars. Piperide is an antidepressant, helping to relax the nervous system. The derivatives of this molecule have been experienced in Asia in the treatment of epilepsy.
This plant is often part of the medicines of Indian medicine, but in Europe it is no longer considered a medicine, due to its use as a culinary spice.
Uses of black pepper:
It was used in the protection of plague, venereal diseases or fever. It is considered an aphrodisiac and is a culinary spice that stimulates the appetite, savors food and improves digestion in case of heavy meals. However, this spice should be used sparingly, since the misuse of pepper can cause gastrointestinal disorders, toxic gastritis and hemorrhoids crisis.
Properties of black pepper and medicinal uses, article source: https://www.brighthealing.com/black-pepper-properties-and-medicinal-uses/
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