Norepinephrine vs Epinephrine – Differences and functions

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Norepinephrine vs Epinephrine - Differences and functions

Norepinephrine functions

Noradrenaline (NE), also known as noradrenaline or noradrenaline (NA), is an organic chemical that is part of the catecholamine family.

Acts as a neurotransmitter (a substance that sends signals between the nerve cells) and the stress hormone. In 1946, Ulf von Euler, a Swedish biologist and Nobel Prize winner, discovered NE.

NE is he found In plants and is also used pharmacologically as sympathomimetic. Its chemical formula is C8H11NO3.

It is classified structurally as a catecholamine, since it contains a catechol group attached to an amine group. In the central nervous system, noradrenaline It is considered a neuromodulator. Because the release of NE affects other organs of the human body, it is also known as a stress hormone.

NE occurs in the brain (more precisely in the Locus Coeruleus, which is a pair of structures located in the protuberance of the brain stem), in the adrenal glands and in the central nervous system.

It is stored in synaptic vesicles and can be broken down into enzymes. NE is high in the urine of people who eat bananas. In the brain, NE improves the formation and recovery of memory, promotes vigilance and focuses attention, increases alertness, excitement, anxiety and restlessness.

The purpose of these stress hormones is to prepare the human body and the brain to cope with a life-threatening physical emergency. To do this, noradrenaline increases heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate and mental alertness, in addition to triggering the release of glucose (sugar) into the bloodstream.

In addition, it helps to divert blood flow from areas where it might not be as vital (at that moment of physical danger), like the skin, to more important areas, the muscles, to help you flee faster from the stressful scene.

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Hyperactive disorder and attention deficit

Adults and children who have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder generally have low levels of NE.

It is also a component of a variety of prescription medications, such as antidepressant medications and medications for hypotension (it treats low blood pressure that can occur with some surgical procedures). When injected into a vein, NE acts on a type of adrenergic receptor known as the alpha receptor.

Prescription medications that mimic the effects of natural NE are often used to treat asthma (a condition that causes the airways to become inflamed) because they considerably relax the bronchial smooth muscle, which helps the person living with asthma to breathe more easily.

Epinephrine functions

Also known as adrenaline or adrenaline, it is a neurotransmitter that is secreted by the marrow of the adrenal glands (these are small endocrine glands located at the top of each kidney).

The word comes from the Greek word "epi-" and "nefros" (which translates as "in the kidney"), which is actually a reference to the adrenal gland above the kidney.

Sometimes, it is called catecholamine, since it contains the catechol moiety. It is derived from tyrosine, a non-essential amino acid in the human body. In 1895, he was identified and isolated by Napoleon Cybulski, a Polish pioneer of electroencephalography and endocrinology and physiologist.

This hormone is usually released during acute stress, and its stimulating effects prepare and strengthen an individual either to "fight or flee". After the release of this neurotransmitter, an individual is now better prepared to escape danger or stress (flee) or face the threat in question (fight).

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To do this, in the bloodstream, this hormone increases oxygen and glucose to the muscles and brain and, at the same time, suppresses nonessential bodily functions.

In addition, this neurotransmitter relaxes the smooth muscles of the lungs to improve breathing and reduce wheezing, constricts blood vessels to increase blood pressure, works to reduce swelling and hives that may occur around the lips and face, and stimulates the heart

Thus affects numerous body tissues, such as – the circulatory system, muscles, and the lungs.

Used as medicine

A health care specialist must prescribe prescription medications that contain adrenaline. In addition, it can be administered in a hospital for cardiac arrest or severe cases of asthma.

An injection with adrenalin It comes as a preloaded automatic injection device that contains a solution and in vials to be injected intramuscularly or subcutaneously. Adrenaline acts quickly to stimulate the heart, improve breathing, reverse hives, raise blood pressure, as well as to reduce swelling of the lips, face and throat.

This contraindicated in patients with closed-angle glaucoma (caused by blocked fluid in the internal structures of the eye) and in individuals With known hypersensitivity to sympathomimetic amines.

Norepinephrine vs Epinephrine – Differences

As for its structure, both are the same, except that adrenaline has a methyl group. In addition, both are similar chemical messengers released by the adrenal medulla.

But nevertheless, the effects Noradrenaline is mainly mediated by the sympathetic nervous system (an essential part of the nervous system that serves to constrict blood vessels, accelerate heart rate and raise blood pressure), while adrenaline is mediated only by the adrenal medulla.

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