This article reveals the differences between the Mullerian aggression syndrome and the androgen insensitivity syndrome:
Mullerian agenesis, also known as vaginal agenesis, Mullerian aplasia, Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH), or mullerian duct anomalies, refers to a condition that affects women where there is no uterus and no ducts develop müllerianos.
Affected women commonly do not have menstrual periods due to the absence of the uterus. It occurs in 1 of every 4,500 females.
Common symptoms include:
possibly just one kidney; scoliosis and other vertebral anomalies; recurrent urinary tract infections; problems urinating; painful sexual intercourse infertility (although not all people with MRKH are infertile); cyclical abdominal pain; Menstruation never begins (primary amenorrhea).
Many women with the syndrome have:
increased levels of psychological distress; cardiac congenital anomalies; renal problems.
The syndrome occurs due to the amalgamation of a series of environmental factors. In addition, the condition appears to have an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern.
The diagnosis is made laparoscopically or radiologically in people in whom the cariotypic and hormonal investigations for primary amenorrhea (the absence of menstrual periods) are normal.
Image credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/openmichigan/6979511003
The syndrome can be treated non-surgically with successive vaginal dilation. If surgery is required to create a neo-vagina (a surgically designed vagina), postoperative dilatation therapy is important to help prevent skin-graft contracture.
In some cases, surgical correction may facilitate normal sexual function.
Gene therapy may also provide an effective approach to resolving this syndrome.
Insensitivity to androgens Syndrome (AIS)
It refers to an inability of the human body to respond correctly to the male sex hormones that occur during pregnancy.
A baby born with the syndrome is genetically male, however, the external aspect of their genitals can be female or somewhere between female and male. For example, people with the syndrome are born as chromosomal males, which means they are genetically male, with the feminization of their sex organs and infertility problems.
This syndrome only occurs in men, however, women are the carriers of the genetic defect. There are 2 main types of syndrome, which affect patients in different ways:
Partial insensitivity to androgens (PAIS)
It occurs when the tissues of the body are partially sensitive to the effects of androgens. The symptoms of PAIS include:
Image credit: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Adoljav.jpg development of the female pelvis; the genitals are between men and women from birth; small prostate; an enlarged clitoris or a very small penis; scanty beard; testicles partially not descended; the voice may have a high tone; hypospadias, where the hole that carries urine out of the body is in the lower part of the penis; impotence (later in life); deteriorated production of male hormones; very little or no sperm in the semen; gynecomastia (increase in the size of the male breast tissue); partial fusion of the vaginal lips; bifid scrotumseparation of the two halves of the scrotum).
Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome
It happens when the human body can not use androgens at all.
People with CAIS have all the normal characteristics of women, however, they have very little pubic hair.
Depending on the extent of androgen receptor dysfunction, complications include:
azoospermia (a condition of a man whose semen does not contain sperm); gynecomastia; lack of virilization; vagina; urogenital sinus; penoscrotal hypospadias; micropenis (less than 2.8 inches long when erect); cryptorchidism
Note – Due to hormonal imbalances, some patients may develop osteoporosis.
It is caused by an alteration in the gene that produces the androgen receptors. Women who have the genetic defect will not have the syndrome, but there are:
1 in 4 chances of having a child with the syndrome; 1 out of 4 chances of having a girl who does not carry the altered gene and is not affected; 1 out of 4 chances of having a normal child; 1 in 4 chances of having a girl who is not affected, however, can transmit the altered gene to their children.
According to the data, there is no correlation between the syndrome and paternal or maternal age.
The diagnosis For the syndrome, it is based on:
Physical exam; personal doctor history; Pelvic ultrasound (a noninvasive diagnostic test that produces images) to confirm the absence of internal female reproductive organs; genetic tests (an image of a person's chromosomes); Blood test: is done to control hormone levels.
The treatment for AIS involves:
hormone replacement in the form of androgens or estrogen supplements that are usually prescribed after puberty; Psychological support and attention to deal with the problems that arise from social interaction with other children.
Note – treatment with bisphosphonates may be required for people who have multiple fractures or decreased bone density.
Mullerian agenesis vs androgen insensitivity syndrome – Differences
Mullerian agenesis is defined as a hereditary malformation in the genital tract of the female reproductive system. In this condition, the vagina is short and intercourse can be painful and difficult. It affects at least 1 in every 4500 births of women. Commonly, failure to start the menstrual cycle is the initial clinical sign of AM. In addition, it is the second most common cause of primary amenorrhea in adolescents.
The androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is a condition that affects sexual development before birth and during puberty. Most people who are born with AIS can not have children, however, they have good general health and can lead a normal life.
There are two categories of AIS:
partial – the human body partially responds to androgen; Complete: the human body does not respond to androgens at all. Referenceshttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0015028211008454https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5368317/https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4822377/
Agenesis of Mullerian vs. Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome – Symptoms, Causes, Differences, Source: https://www.yourhealthremedy.com/health-tips/mullerian-agenesis-vs-androgen-insensitivity/
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