It is a deadly disease that is caused by parasites that are transmitted to adults and children through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes.
Around the world, around 3.2 billion people in 95 territories and countries are at risk of becoming infected with this disease and 1.2 billion are at high risk. Approximately 438,000 people died of this condition in 2015, according to the World Health Organization.
Ninety percent of the deaths due to this infection occur in Africa. For example, it accounts for about 20 percent of child deaths. In addition, it contributes considerably to anemia among children.
This infection was eliminated from the United States in the early 1950s. However, approximately 2,000 cases continue to occur each year in people who have traveled to endemic areas of malaria.
Common symptoms may include:
muscle pains; abdominal pain; little appetite; chills and sweats (every 48 or 72 hours, depending on the species); low blood pressure; high fever; headache; vomiting nausea; Diarrhea.
Neurological defects can sometimes persist after cerebral malaria, especially in children and include: paralysis (accompanied by uncontrolled body movements), problems with movements (ataxia), deafness, speech difficulties and blindness.
The parasite is spread by female Anopheles mosquitoes, which bite mainly between dusk and dawn. Once the infected female Anopheles mosquito bites a human, the parasites multiply in the liver of the host before infecting and destroying erythrocytes (better known as red blood cells).
Within 48 to 72 hours, this parasite within the erythrocytes multiplies, causing the infected cells to burst open.
There are 5 species of Plasmodium parasite that can cause this condition in humans:
# 1 Plasmodium falciparum
It is found mainly in the subtropics and the tropics (near the equator) and generally has a short incubation period (up to two weeks).
# 2 Plasmodium vivax
It is found mainly in South America and Asia and causes milder symptoms than P. falciparum, however, it can remain in the liver for more than 3 years, which can lead to relapses. The incubation period for Plasmodium vivax is usually 10 to 17 days.
# 3 Plasmodium ovale
It is generally considered to have a relatively limited distribution, which is limited to the areas of New Guinea, tropical Africa, the Philippines and eastern Indonesia.
# 4 Plasmodium malariae
It is one of the least studied species of this parasite that infects humans, due to its milder clinical manifestations and low prevalence.
# 5 Plasmodium knowlesi
It is usually found in the Philippines, Malaysia and Southeast Asia, and can cause high levels of blood parasites. Infection with P. knowlesi can cause organ failure or death.
It is treated with anti-malarial drugs administered by injection, orally or intravenously, depending on the type of parasite that causes the infection.
The risk of this infection can be reduced considerably preventing Mosquito bites by using insect repellents and mosquito nets, as well as draining standing water.
It is a viral infection transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito. According to the World Health Organization, more than 200,000 people are infected each year. It is common in sub-Saharan Africa and South America. 1905 was the year of the last major outbreak in the United States.
The period of time from the hiring of the infection to the development of signs and the symptoms are usually 3 to 6 days. They include:
feeling of general malaise; loss of appetite; a high temperature of 38C (100.4F); eyes sensitive to light; headache; Back pain; Muscle pain; throwing up
Most patients recover completely after 3 or 4 days. However, a small percentage of patients enter the second phase within 24 hours after recovery of the first signs and symptoms.
Symptoms in the second phase may include:
eyes or yellow skin (jaundice); high fever returns; bleeding problems; Itch; headache; weakness; drowsiness (excessive drowsiness); Back pain; abdominal pain; vomiting nausea.
Approximately 50 percent of patients who enter the second phase die within two weeks, the rest recover without significant organ damage.
You can develop this condition if you are bitten by the Aedes aegypti mosquito infected with this virus, a single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the genus Flavivirus.
Infected people can not transmit this infection to other people through casual contact, however, it can be transmitted to the blood through contaminated needles.
No treatments have been found that benefit patients with this condition. However, patients should be hospitalized to receive supportive care to help reduce high temperature (drinking plenty of fluids to avoid dehydration) and muscle pain (use ibuprofen or acetaminophen).
Methods to prevent this infection include wearing protective clothing and using insect repellent. Also, stay away from areas that have a large population of mosquitoes and bodies of standing water. Also, wear long pants and long-sleeved shirts when outdoors.
Malaria vs Yellow Fever – Differences
Both are transmitted by mosquitoes (although they are different), however, yellow fever is caused by a virus and malaria is caused by a parazite. In addition, it can be deadly.
Malaria against yellow fever: symptoms, causes, differences, source: https://www.yourhealthremedy.com/health-tips/malaria-vs-yellow-fever/
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