How does your diet accumulate?
According to a survey, many of us lack important nutrients
By Elaine Magee, MPH, RD
WebMD Weight Loss Clinic – Expert Column
According to the latest comprehensive government report, the American diet is simply not up to par. Despite good intentions, our food choices do not meet our body's needs for four important nutrients: vitamin E, magnesium, vitamin A, and vitamin C.
Many of us, especially older adults, must also worry about other components of the diet.
So, what can we do about it? Next, we will give you some tips, recipes and excellent suggestions to make sure that your diet accumulates. But first, here is a bit of history about the government's findings.
About the report
Each year, the Food Surveys Research Group of the US Department of Agriculture. UU Conduct a survey of what Americans eat, using a random sample of 9,000 people across the country. Each participant completes a 24-hour dietary recall, which includes food and beverages, but not dietary supplements. Then, there is a follow-up telephone interview. The majority of participants (80%) also undergo a physical examination.
The results are then compiled for a period of two years. The latest discoveries have been published in a document called. What we eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2002: Usual nutrient intake in food compared to dietary reference intake. (There is a delay in publishing the conclusions because it takes a long time to collect and analyze the data volumes).
The report, often referred to simply as NHANES, compares the results of the survey with the Institute of Medicine's (DRI) reference dietary intakes, the most recent recommendations on the nutrients we need for good health. The evaluation includes 24 different nutrients and dietary components.
The latest findings
According to the latest report:
Nearly 95% of people in the United States are not getting desirable intakes of vitamin E from food and beverages. More than half are not getting enough magnesium. About 40% are not getting enough vitamin A. Almost a third are not getting desirable intakes of vitamin C from the foods and beverages they consume. Vitamin B-6 and zinc are also below the suggested intake levels. Older adults are the population group with the highest risk of not meeting the nutritional requirements. Everyone should worry about getting enough vitamin K, calcium, phosphorus and dietary fiber.
To make sure your diet has all the nutrients you need, a good place to start is with "My Pyramid" from the US Department of Agriculture. UU At www.mypyramid.gov, along with the 2005 Dietary Guidelines.
Another great start: breakfast in a bowl of high-fiber cereal with skim milk, plus a glass of orange juice (this will help meet your needs for vitamin C, calcium, potassium and fiber).
Beyond that, go out of your way to eat tasty foods that are rich in all or most of the four main nutrients that the American diet lacks. Below, you will find each one's main food sources, along with some "super foods" that contain more than one of them; 10 easy tips to improve your diet; And a couple of recipes to try.
The best food sources of vitamin E
The reference dietary intake for men and women with vitamin E of 31 years and older is 15 milligrams of TE (equivalent of alpha-tocopherol) per day.
|1/4 cup of sunflower seeds||17|
|1/4 cup hazelnuts / hazelnuts||8|
|1 tablespoon of hazelnut oil||6|
|1 tablespoon of almond oil||5|
|1/4 cup of peanuts||2.5|
|1/4 cup pistachios||2.2|
|1/4 cup of almonds||2.2|
|1 cup of tomato sauce||3.4|
|2 tablespoons peanut butter||3.3|
|1 cup cooked Swiss chard||3.3|
|1 tablespoon of canola oil||2.9|
|1 cup of vegetables, cooked (cabbage, mustard)||2.8|
|2 tablespoons of wheat germ||2.6|
|2 cups raw spinach||two|
|1 egg high omega-3 (Eggland's Best)||two|
|3.5 ounces of steamed clams||two|
|1 cup broccoli, cooked||1.8|
|3.5 ounces of canned white tuna in water||1.6|
|1 cup of papaya cubes||1.6|
The best food sources of vitamin A
The reference dietary intake for women over 31 is 700 RE (retinol equivalents). The reference dietary intake for men over 31 is 900.
|1/2 cup of cooked carrots||1,300-1900|
|1/4 cup of canned pumpkin||1,350|
|1 small baked sweet potato||1.310|
|1/2 cup of pumpkin, cooked||857|
|1/2 cup of spinach, cooked||739|
|1 cup of melon cubes||561|
|1/2 cup of green leaves (mustard, cabbage, beetroot)||260-500|
|1/2 cup of kale, cooked||481|
|2 cups raw spinach||404|
|1 cup broccoli, cooked||212-348|
|2 cups of romaine lettuce||292|
|1 cup of tomato and vegetable juice||283|
|1/2 cup chard, cooked||275|
|1/2 cup chopped red peppers||212|
|2 cups loose leaf lettuce||212|
|2 fresh apricots||183|
|3 1/2 ounces of steamed clams||171|
|1/2 cup artichoke hearts, cooked||149|
|3 1/2 ounces of oysters||146|
|1/2 cup of tomato sauce||120|
|4 halves of dried apricot||101|
The best food sources of vitamin C
The recommended daily intake for women over 31 is 75 mg / day. The recommended daily intake for men over 31 is 90 mg / day.
|1/2 cup raw red pepper||142|
|1 cup of orange juice||82-124|
|1 cup broccoli, cooked||124|
|1 cup brussels sprouts||96|
|1 cup of fresh grapefruit||94|
|1 cup of papaya||86|
|1 cup of strawberry halves||86|
|1 cup of canned grapefruit juice||72|
|1 cup of melon cubes||68|
|1 cup of tomato juice and vegetables||67|
|1/2 cup raw green pepper||66|
|1 cup of cauliflower, cooked||54|
|1 cup of kale, cooked||54|
|1 small orange||51|
|1 medium grapefruit||41-46|
|1 cup of tomato juice||44|
|1 cup of cooked vegetables (cabbage, beetroot, mustard)||36-44|
|1 cup of pumpkin, cooked||36|
|1 cup of tomatoes, chopped||3. 4|
|1 cup of tomato sauce||32|
|1 cup chard, cooked||32|
|2 cups raw spinach||31|
|1 cup of green soybeans, cooked||30|
|1 cup of raspberries or blackberries||30|
The recommended daily intake for women over 31 years of age is 320 mg / day. The recommended daily intake for men over 31 is 420 mg / day.
|1/4 cup of roasted pumpkin seeds||303|
|1 cup chard, cooked||150|
|1/2 cup of tofu||128|
|1/4 cup of almonds||119|
|1 cup of beet leaves, cooked||98|
|1/4 cup of soy nuts (roasted soybeans)||98|
|1/4 cup hazelnuts / hazelnuts||96|
|1 cup of okra, cooked||92|
|1/4 cup of sunflower seeds||82 (average)|
|1/4 cup of cashew nuts||74|
|1 whole artichoke, cooked.||72|
|1 cup of pumpkin, cooked||72|
|1/4 cup of peanuts||63|
|1/4 cup walnuts or pistachios||51|
|1 tablespoon of molasses||fifty|
|1/2 cup of baby beans, cooked||fifty|
|2 slices of whole grain bread||48|
|2 cups raw spinach||48|
|3.5 ounces of crab, cooked||43|
|1 cup of low-fat yogurt||43|
|1 cup of green cabbage, cooked||42|
|1 cup whole wheat pasta, cooked||42|
|1/2 cup of brown rice, cooked||42|
|1/2 cup of beans, cooked (kidney, lentils, pinto, black-eyed peas, split peas)||32-40|
|3.5 ounces of fish, shrimp or oysters, cooked||30-40|
|1 cup of Brussels sprouts, cooked||36|
|1 banana||3. 4|
The super foods
Some foods can help you kill many birds with a single nutritional stone, so to speak. Certain foods appear more than once in these lists. In fact, I found three foods that are in all four:
Swiss green chard spinach cooked chard
I also found three foods that are in all but one of the lists:
Pumpkin Butternut Tomato Sauce / Broccoli Juice
These foods are the main sources of two of the four nutrients:
Almonds, peanuts, pistachios and hazelnuts (magnesium and vitamin E) Soy (tofu and soy nuts are rich in magnesium, green soy is a top in vitamin C) Clams (vitamins E and A) Oysters (vitamin A and magnesium) Kale (vitamins A and C) Cantaloupe (vitamins A and C) Papaya (vitamins C and E) Mango (vitamins A and C)
10 tips to improve the diet
Here are some easy tips to make sure your diet is not deficient in these four nutrients.
1. Enjoy a handful of nuts almost every day.
2. Use raw spinach instead of lettuce for your salad.
3. Toss a bit of papaya or mango in your shake (the mango is available frozen).
4. Discover some of these less popular vegetables as garnishes: vegetables, Swiss chard, Brussels sprouts, kale and pumpkin.
5. Add broccoli to everything you can imagine (salads, stews, pizzas, side dishes) and serve with a light dressing or dressing as an appetizer or snack.
6. Enjoy the melon as a snack, garnish or part of your breakfast.
7. Take tomato juice, enjoy a tomato soup or eat an Italian dish with tomato sauce.
8. For a change of pace, find a light dish recipe that includes clams or oysters.
9. Put some edamame (green soybeans) in the microwave for an easy and satisfying snack; Munch in some soy nuts; and look for recipes that contain tofu. You can also add green soy without shell to all kinds of dishes, such as fried rice, stews, pasta salads, etc.
10. Switch to cooking oils that provide some vitamin E (hazelnut oil, almond oil, canola oil) and buy eggs with higher omega-3 and vitamin E content if available in your area.
Also, try these recipes, which focus on foods that are rich in nutrients that many of us lack.
Swiss swiss chard wrappers
12 medium and large Swiss chard leaves (red or green), rinsed well; cut the thickest part of the stem (about 1/3 of the way up from the bottom of the leaf)
4 to 5 ounces of mozzarella, partially moistened, sliced or crushed
12 teaspoons of tomato paste
6 small tomatoes (or 3 large ones), cut in quarters
About a teaspoon of Dash Dash Garlic & Herb without salt
Salt to taste (optional)
Place 4 leaves (still quite wet after rinsing) in a microwave-safe dish and place them on HIGH for approximately 25 seconds. Place the leaves face down on a sheet of non-stick gelatin (or similar) with the stems aligned from north to south. Place 1/4 ounce of cheese in the center, in a rectangle 2 inches long, from north to south. Spread 1 teaspoon of the tomato paste over the cheese, then cover with 2 quarts (if using small tomatoes) and sprinkle about 1/16 teaspoon of Mrs. Dash on the tomato filling. Fold the north and south ends of the sheet over the filling, then fold the sides to create a wrap similar to a burrito. Place in the jellyroll tray, with the stem facing up. Repeat with the remaining leaves and filling. Preheat the oven on the grill. Grilled, with the pan about 6 inches from the flame, for 2 minutes. Turn the wrappers over and take the other side for 2 more minutes. Sprinkle salt over the top, if desired.
Yield: approximately 6 side portions (2 wraps per serving)
Per portion (2 laps): 102 calories, 9 g of protein, 11 g of carbohydrates, 3.8 g of fat (2.2 g of saturated fat), 10 mg of cholesterol, 3.3 g of fiber, 369 mg of sodium. Calories from fat: 31%.
Smoked greens (without ham or bacon fat)
2 teaspoons of olive oil
1 cup chopped sweet onion
1 teaspoon chopped garlic
16 ounce bag of mixed green leaves "cut and cleaned" (cabbage, mustard, turnip) or cabbage leaves.
2 cups of water or chicken broth or low sodium meat
1/2 teaspoon of coffee sugar
1/2 teaspoon of molasses
1 teaspoon of liquid smoke flavoring (available in small bottles in the BBQ section of most supermarkets)
Pepper to taste
Salt to taste (optional)
Heat the olive oil in a large nonstick pan over medium-high heat. Add the onion and garlic and sauté for a few minutes, stirring frequently. Add the chopped vegetables and 2 cups of water or broth. Add the brown sugar, molasses and liquid smoke and mix well. Carry a boil, then reduce the heat to a simmer. Continue to simmer for about 25 minutes, or until the vegetables are tender.
Yield: 4 servings
Per serving: 82 calories, 2.5 g of protein, 14.5 g of carbohydrates, 2.5 g of fat (0.3 g of saturated fat), 0 mg of cholesterol, 5 g of fiber, 25 mg of sodium. Calories from fat: 26%.
SOURCE: Nutrients in Food by Elizabeth Hands, ESHA Research Food Processor II.
Recipes provided by Elaine Magee; © 2005 Elaine Magee.
© 1996-2005 WebMD Inc. All rights reserved.
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