Dr (Maj Gen) JKBansal,
Medal Vishista Sewa, ChikitsaRatan, Maryland
WHO thyroid companion, University of Southern California, United States
Member of the WHO in Endocrinology, University of Wales, UK.
FOrmer Head thyroid department INMAS Government of India Delhi.
Thyroid Clinic 74 Mall Road, BehindD-3 Vasant Kunj, New Delhi
Senior Consultant, Thyroid and Diabetes Rockland Hospital, Qutab NewDelhi
The thyroid is a small butterfly-shaped gland located in the front of the neck. The thyroid takes the iodine from the blood and uses it to produce theattive thtive hormones, tetraiodothyronine (T4), and triiodothyronine (T3). These thyroid hormones supply energy to the body's cells, burn calories and control the heartbeat.
I. Thyroid Disorders:
There are several different disorders that may arise due to overactive thyroid, or hyperthyroidism, and underactive thyroid or hypothyroidism or Enlargement of the thyroid gland causing goiter. Thyroid problems include:
one. Hypothyroidism: when the thyroid glands do not produce enough thyroid hormones
two. Hyperthyroidism: when the thyroid gland produces more thyroid hormones than the body needs
3. Goiter – enlarged thyroid due to thyroid nodules, thyroiditis, thyroid cancer.
II. T3, T4, hormone TSH tests: Blood tests can determine the amount of hormones produced by the thyroid and pituitary glands. If the thyroid is not active, the level of thyroid hormone will be low. At the same time, the level of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) will rise because the pituitary gland tries to stimulate the thyroid gland to produce morethyroid hormone. The goiter associated with an overactive thyroid generally involves a high level of thyroid hormone in the blood and a TSH level lower than normal.
Antibodiestest A blood test can confirm the presence of antibodies that indicate autoimmune thyroid disease.
Ultrasound: The images reveal the size of the thyroid gland and whether the gland contains nodules that may not have been clinically detected.
Uptake and exploration of the thyroid radionuclide: The uptake and exploration of the thyroid provide information on the activity and size of the thyroid.
Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC): During a fine-needle aspiration biopsy, an ultrasound is used to guide a needle into the thyroid and obtain a sample of fluid for testing. FNAC is useful to indicate if the lesion is benign or malignant.
One of the most common causes of hypothyroidism is the autoimmune disease called Hashimoto's disease, in which Antithyroid antibodies gradually target the thyroid and destroy its ability to produce thyroid hormone. The causes of hypothyroidism include:
one. Hashimoto's disease, a Autoimmune disorder, where the body's own immune system attacks the thyroid tissue, leading to a reduction in thyroid hormone.
Treatment of Grave's hyperthyroidism. with radioactive iodine or by Thyroidectomy can lead to hypothyroidism. Baby, born without thyroid gland. (congenital hypothyroidism); Surgical removal of the thyroid gland. As a treatment for thyroid cancer.
Symptoms of hypothyroidism.:
one. Fatigue or lack of energy
two. Dry and thick skin
3. Dry and coarse hair
Four. Sensitivity to low temperatures.
5. Intense and / or irregular periods.
6 Swollen handkerchiefs
7 Unexplained weight gain
9. Muscle cramps, muscle pain and hypersensitivity.
10 Heart rate slower than normal
13 Mental lethargy
fifteen. Decreased libido
Hypothyroidism represents a special danger for newborns and babies. The lack of thyroid hormones in the system at a young age can lead to cretinism (mental retardation) and dwarfism (stunted growth). Babies need their thyroid levels checked routinely shortly after birth. If they are found to be hypothyroid, treatment should begin immediately. In infants, hypothyroidism may be due to a pituitary disorder, a defective thyroid, or a complete lack of the gland. An infant with hypothyroidism is unusually inactive and calm, has little appetite and sleeps for excessively long periods of time.
Subclinical hypothyroidism It is quite common and almost impossible to diagnose clinically. There may be no symptoms associated with this condition. It is important to make the correct diagnosis because once the treatment is started, it usually continues for life, as it becomes very difficult to stop the treatment to determine if the original diagnosis was correct. The measurement of TSH in the blood helps to define even lower degrees of hypothyroidism.
Treatment of hypothyroidism.: TThe replacement of thyroid hormone with levothyroxine (Levothroid, Synthroid) will resolve the symptoms of hypothyroidism and slow the release of thyroid stimulating hormoneRmone of the pituitary gland.
When the thyroid the gland becomes overactive and produces too much thyroid hormone, it is said that a person is hyperthyroid. The most common cause of hyperthyroidism is the self immunocondition known as Graves' disease, where thyroid antibodies attack the gland and accelerate the production of hormones. Hyperthyroidism occurs due to:
Graves disease. This is an autoimmune condition and is the most common cause of an overactive thyroid gland.
Toxic adenomas: The nodules develop in the thyroid gland and begin to secrete excessive thyroid hormones. A goiter can contain several of these nodules, then it is called multineodular toxic goiter.
Subacute thyroiditis: This is where the inflammation of the thyroid causes the gland to "filter out" excess hormones, resulting in temporary hyperthyroidism. The condition usually lasts a few weeks, but may persist for months.
Hyperthyroidism- Signs and symptoms:
one. Unexplained weight loss
two. Weight loss despite an increase in appetite.
3. Irritability and nervousness
Four. Muscle weakness and / or tremors.
5. Irregular periods
6 Difficulty to sleep
7 Committed vision irritation of the eyes.
8 Sensitivity to warm temperatures.
9. Heart palpitations orrapid heartbeat
10 Frequent bowel movements or diarrhea
eleven. High blood pressure
12 High heart rate
13 Excessive sweating
14 Excessive thinning of the hair.
When the thyroid gland enlarges due to diseases or tumors, it is called goiter. It may be associated with hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. Goiter can be associated with normal levels of thyroid hormones. When the goiter becomes very large, it can sometimes cause symptoms because it presses adjacent structures like esophagus and trachea. Symptoms that may occur in connection with a large goiter include trouble swallowing, difficulty breathing, hoarseness. Some of the conditions that can cause goiter include:
one. From Hashimoto thyroiditis, a common autoimmune Condition in which the immune response of the body is directed against the thyroid gland, which leads to the inflammation of the thyroid.
two. Iodo Deficiency, is an important cause of goiter.
3. Graves disease, another autoimmune disease, stimulates the gland to be too active
Four. Benign tumors (nodules) that can cause Multinodular goiter
5. Thyroid cancers
If they are detected and managed, in the early stage of onset, thyroid disorders are treatable. Therefore, it is recommended that you inform a thyroid specialist as soon as you suspect a thyroid problem.
Read the full article "Causes, diagnosis and treatment of thyroid diseases" written by Dr. (Maj Gen) JK Bansal at Practo.com here: https://www.practo.com/healthfeed/thyroid-diseases- causes-diagnosis- and-treatment-5992 / post
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