25 interesting facts about the Golgi apparatus and its functions and structure

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25 interesting facts about the Golgi apparatus and its functions and structure

Here is one List Of the 25 most interesting Acts About the Golgi apparatus:

# one The Golgi (GA) apparatus, also known as the Golgi body or the Golgi complex, is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells. It consists of a series of piled and stacked bags called cisterns.

# two It is the seat of glycosylation of A series of secretory products of the cell.

# 3 Together with the transport vesicles and the endoplasmic reticulum, GA is part of the endomembrane system of the cell, which transports molecules around the cell. This system transports molecules, like proteins, in vesicles.

# 4 GA can be thought of how the "packing, modifying and sending warehouse" of the cell.

# 5 The number of GA within a cell is variable. Plant cells can contain up to a few hundred smaller versions, while animal cells tend to have smaller and larger GAs.

# 6 It is named after Camillo Golgi, an Italian scientist and doctor who discovered the orbital structure of the organelle in 1898. However, since the microscopes of the time could not see the cells in good detail, most scientists rejected their discovery.

# 7 The reality of the GA was established unequivocally only with the application of electronic microscopy. After the visualization of its structure, GA achieved the state of a cytoplasmic organelle.

# 8 Although GA was first described 120 years ago, the precise mechanism by which proteins move through AG has not yet been correctly established.

Image credit: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Golgi_apparatus_(editors_version ).svg

# 9 In more recent years, a level of complexity arose around GA with the discovery that GA is involved in cellular processes Apart from the "classic" traffic routes and biosynthesis.

# 10 Three different regions of the GA are currently recognized both in terms of function and structure:

medial, located between the cis and trans regions; trans, in the vicinity of the trans face; cis, in the vicinity of the cis face.

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Location

# eleven It is an internal organelle that is near the nucleus of the cell where it modifies specific proteins that have been administered in transport vesicles.

Functions

Image credit: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Golgi_apparatus_(editors_version ).svg

# 12 It has many discrete functions, however, they are all associated with the movement of molecules from the endoplasmic reticulum to their destination and the modification of certain molecules along the way.

# 13 GA works together with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), therefore, both organelles are side by side. ER in a membrane system that forms a sequence of sacs within the cytoplasm.

# 14 When a protein is produced in the endoplasmic reticulum, something called a transition vesicle is produced. The substances inside the vesicles are secreted by an operational universal cellular process. Some of the molecules are secreted into areas outside the cell. Other molecules are destined to the cell membrane, where they help in the intercellular signaling and the repair of the membrane.

#fifteen Each Golgi stack has 2 faces (or ends). The cis face is the end of this organelle where specific substances enter from the emergency room for processing. On the opposite side is the trans face.

#sixteen Proteins enter the GA on the side facing the endoplasmic reticulum and exit on the other side of the cell.

# 17 The proteins can be modified by the addition of a phosphate group (phosphorylation) or a carbohydrate group (glycosylation). These modifications can create a signal sequence in the protein, which determines the fate of the protein.

# 18 It is estimated that 5 percent (984 proteins) of all human proteins were detected in the GA by the Human Protein Atlas, a Swedish-based program that solves the spatial distribution of the human proteome at the subcellular level.

# 19 In plant cells, the GS also serves as the site where the complex polysaccharides of the cell wall are synthesized.

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# twenty Lipid metabolism also occurs in AG. This involves the use of ceramide synthesized and imported from the endoplasmic reticulum to synthesize glycolipids and sphingomyelin. These lipids have the ability to combine with cholesterol to create domains, which has led to the conclusion that these lipids could contribute to the classification of proteins in the AG.

Structure

Image credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/biologyflashcards/3439842650

# twenty-one GA consists of sets of smooth surface cisterns delimited by membranes. Commonly, from 5 to 8 flattened disc-shaped cisterns are present in an AG, however, researchers have observed up to 60 cisterns.

# 22 Each set of cisterns resembles a stack of pancakes. Each of these is bound by a membrane and held together by a protein matrix.

# 2. 3 The tanks are very small, with a diameter that varies from 0.5 nm to 1.0 nm.

# 24 These cisterns have 5 functional regions, and each region has different enzymes.

Diseases

# 25 The defects of the Golgi apparatus in diseases with abnormal processing or trafficking of lipids and proteins include:

Tangier disease and type C Niemann-Pick disease (a lipid storage disease); a putative defect of N-acetyl glucosaminyl-transferase II or alpha-mannosidase II; congenital dyserythropoietic type II anemia (a hereditary disorder of the blood characterized by mild to severe anemia); blockade of enzyme transport in congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency; the hypothesis of delayed synthesis of proteoglycans; autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (the most prevalent monogenic disorder, potentially lethal and monogenic); Cystic fibrosis (a progressive genetic disease that causes persistent lung infections) and the hypothesis of defective acidification; a deficiency of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 5-phosphatase in Lowe's oculocerebronrenal syndrome; Phosphotransferase deficiency in pseudo-Hurler polydystrophy and I cell disease (a rare and progressive metabolic disorder). Referenceshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20575472https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124171640000215https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11064-007-9302-4

25 interesting facts about the Golgi apparatus and its functions and structure, Source: https://www.yourhealthremedy.com/health-tips/golgi-apparatus-facts/

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